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    → 左岸讀書,一如既往。

    一槍一旗的神話

    2018-12-09 . 閱讀: 684 views

    作者:曾園

    選自《茶葉偵探》

    宋徽宗其實一直是被誤解的人。他在政治上的成就被靖康之恥一筆抹殺;他在美學上的成就變得高不可攀。他被擄去金國后的經歷通常被認為一直過著屈辱的生活。但流傳千年的文物告訴了我們一段秘聞。現今收藏于大英博物館的顧愷之《女史箴圖》,因收入《宣和畫譜》,圖卷左端書有“跋女史箴圖”, 卷內鈐有徽宗“宣和”連珠印,明清以來諸畫譜均認定為宋徽宗手書。直到二十世紀,日本學者矢代幸雄與外山軍治發現《女史箴圖》畫作卷末的騎縫后鈐有金章宗“明昌中秘”印璽,卷內“恭”字闕筆避諱(章宗父名“完顏允恭”),這兩點確認這段“瘦金體”為金章宗所書。

    金朝朝廷上下競相模仿瘦金體,這不奇怪,古往今來學瘦金體的人多如恒河沙數,但最有價值、假動作逼真到迷惑了所有專家的是俘虜了宋徽宗的金人,模仿到這種程度要花費一個皇帝多少精力與心力?奇怪不奇怪?感人不感人?

    宋徽宗這種美學上不可思議的影響力與裁決力也是有副作用的。他在《大觀茶論》中的一段話讓中國茶的發展路徑繞了一個大彎:“凡芽如雀舌谷粒者為斗品,一槍一旗為揀芽,一槍二旗為次之,余斯為下。”

    一般人即能理解:宋徽宗為茶定了品級,茶芽越小越好, 最好小如雀舌或谷粒,一芽一葉(即絕妙的一槍一旗說法的直白表達)次之,一芽兩葉更次,一芽三葉宋徽宗就不想說了。于是,在中國文人的筆下,追求茶的“嫩度”成了一條不歸路。

    魯迅在《上海的少女》一文中沉痛地檢討了漢族美學中這一股腐朽的支脈:“不但是《西游記》里的魔王,吃人的時候必須童男和童女而已,在人類中的富戶豪家,也一向以童女為侍奉,縱欲,鳴高,尋仙,采補的材料,恰如食品的饜足了普通的肥甘,就想乳豬芽茶一樣。現在這現象并且已經見于商人和工人里面了,但這乃是人們的生活不能順遂的結果,應該以饑民的掘食草根樹皮為比例,和富戶豪家的縱恣的變態是不可同日而語的。”

    然而,中國人也許誤會了宋徽宗“凡芽如雀舌谷粒者為斗品”這句話里的“斗品”,很多書籍將“斗品”解讀為“最佳品質”,其實是不準確的。“斗品”其實是指最適合宋代極其復雜的“斗茶”中的品質。所謂“斗茶”,指的是在宋代“點茶”中茶湯乳花泛濫,咬盞的時間長短。宋徽宗自己的說法是“乳霧洶涌,溢盞而起,周回凝而不動,謂之咬盞”。不可思議吧?

    “斗品是宋代最高檔的名茶,亦稱斗茶。因其為宋代用于斗茶的精選出來的最佳極品名茶而得名。猶今之參加名茶評審的樣茶。”《中國茶事大典》如此描述,很準確。

    但宋徽宗在另一處的記述卻被忽視了:“夫茶以味為上。香甘重滑,為味之全。”玩歸玩,茶終歸要講味道,他的標準放到今天仍然堪稱金科玉律:“香甘重滑。”換個字方便今天的人理解,即香甜厚滑,符合這四個字,即為好茶,在巖茶與普洱的上品中較易尋獲。

    “茶旗乃葉之方敷者,葉味苦,旗過老則初雖留舌而飲徹反甘矣。”“方敷”即葉剛剛展開,喝起來有點苦,但更老一點的茶葉苦味會留在舌上,喝過之后,回甘較好。

    也就是說,斗茶最好全用芽來做茶,而喝茶,一芽三葉反而更能達到“回甘”的效果。但這個重要信息在漢族品鑒美學中被忽視了。尤其是,宋朝滅亡,斗茶游戲終止,漢族人品茶的主流輿論仍然推崇斗茶要求,實在是刻舟求劍。

    即使在當時,對宋徽宗的誤解就已經產生。熊蕃在《宣和北苑貢茶錄》一書中忘乎所以地吹捧芽茶:“揀芽猶奇如此,而況芽茶以供天子之新嘗者乎?芽茶絕矣!至于水芽,則曠古未之聞也。”這么個美丑不辨的人,對上級領導的品味贊嘆到口水流一地。他還記載了其他溜須拍馬之人的行徑:“宣和庚子歲,漕臣鄭公可簡始創為銀線水芽。蓋將已揀熟芽再剔去, 只取其心一縷,用珍器貯清泉漬之,光明瑩潔,若銀線然。” 其實也就是用純芽頭做茶。其他全是噱頭。

    當時,宋子安在《東溪試茶錄》一書中就寫道:“雖……茅葉過老,色益青明,氣益郁然,其止則苦去而甘至。民間謂之草木大而味大是也。”也就是說,老葉色好,氣好,回甘好。宋子安經常強調官方的茶葉品鑒與民間不一致。至少在此處, 官方因為媚上而走了彎路,民間堅持了“草木大而味大”這一樸素真理。

    值得一提的是,現在名聞遐邇的“金駿眉”是在 2005 年創立,借鑒碧螺春、黃山毛峰利用“單芽”做茶,結果一舉成名。我雖然對單芽不以為然,但承認這一產品存在的合理性, 這個品牌也擴大了茶文化的知名度,善莫大焉。

    2012 年 5 月 23 日上午,劉曉慶發了一條微博“品嘗大紅袍的極品‘金駿眉’。這么名貴的茶,請我這個茶盲喝,我自己都覺得暴殄天物”。大紅袍與金駿眉不是一種茶,圖片里的金駿眉是瓶裝飲料,所以招來了兩萬條轉發,多半語帶譏諷。劉曉慶三天后憤怒反擊:“說實話也沒喝出瓊漿玉液的感覺來。所以我說給我喝是暴殄天物。是茶盲有什么大逆不道嗎?能不強加于人,讓我按照自己的方式生活嗎?”

    司馬遷稱莊子“其言洸洋自恣以適己,故自王公大人不能器之。”潮州茶人陳香白說中國茶道突出了“自恣以適己”的隨意性,所以,自稱“茶盲”但擴大了茶文化的劉曉慶行事風格還真是符合茶道精神呢。

    左岸記:喜歡喝茶,喜歡了解茶知識、茶歷史、茶文化的朋友可以讀讀曾園的這本《茶葉偵探》,這本書寫得有趣,以茶為主線,旁征博引,縱觀歷史。讀著文章,相信大家已經聞到茶香了。

    如果你意猶未盡,那么可以再品一品下面的“廣東人的茶”。

    左岸

    愛讀書,愛生活!

    發表評論



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